Criminal law is that body of law relating to crimes (which can be classified as either felonies or misdemeanors). Crimes are offenses against the state; they are investigated by the police, prosecuted at public expense, and can be punished by incarceration as well as fines. The uses of science and technology are to commit crimes are always subject to criminal prosecution and punishment. The standard of proof in criminal cases is stronger than the standard of proof in civil cases, which is preponderance of evidence and for may extend to absence of reasonable doubt. Criminal law, like all other forms of law, is subject to ethical assessment and criticism. See also ADMINISTRATIVE LAW and Civil Law.