Recommended Readings and Online Resources


This page contains additional resources for unit 2 of the  Course on Genomics, Ethics, and Society.

  • Cho M. K., Magnus D., Caplan A. L., McGee D. & the Ethics of Genomics Group (1999). Ethical considerations in synthesizing a minimal genome.Science 286, 2087–2090.

  • Garfinkel, M., Endy, D., Epstein, G. L., & Friedman, R. M. (2007). Synthetic Genomics – Options for Governance. Retrieved from
  • Gutmann, A. (2011). The ethics of synthetic biology: Guiding principles for emerging technologies. Hastings Center Report, 41, 17-22.
  • Deplazes, A., Ganguli-Mitra, A., & Biller-Andorno, N. (2010). The ethics of synthetic biology: Outlining the agenda. In M. Schmidt, A. Kelle, and H. Vriend (eds.) Synthetic biology: The technoscience and its societal consequences. Springer, pp. 65-79.
  • Kaebnick, G. E. (2009). Should moral objections to synthetic biology affect public policy? Nature Biotechnology, 27, 1106-1108.
  • Kaebnick, G. E., & Murray, T. H. (eds.) (2013). Synthetic Biology and Morality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Norton, B. G. (2010). Synthetic biology: Some concerns of a biodiversity advocate. Remarks on synthetic biology to the Presidential Commission on Bioethics. Retrieved from
  • Rabinow, P. & Bennett, G. (2009). Synthetic biology: Ethical ramifications. Systems and Synthetic Biology, 3, 99-108.
  • Vashee, S., Algire, M. A., Montague, M. G. & Garfinkel, M. S. (2011). Synthetic biology: Implications and uses. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine. Retrieved from
  • Yearley, S. (2009). The ethical landscape: Identifying the right way to think about the ethical and societal aspects of synthetic biology research and products. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 6, S559-S564. Retrieved from

Online Resources

Synthetic Biology Center at MIT:

The International Genetically Engineered Machine Foundation:

Synthetic Biology Project:

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