Text Recycling Research Project


As the use of plagiarism-detection software by research journals and academic institutions grows, more instances of text recycling are being identified—and yet there is no consensus on what constitutes ethically or legally acceptable practice. Text recycling is thus an increasingly important and problematic matter in research ethics and publishing.

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Cary Moskovitz (Lead PI)
Professor of the Practice and Director of Writing in the Disciplines, Thompson Writing Program
Duke University

Chris Anson (PI)
Distinguished University Professor and Director of the Campus Writing and Speaking Program
North Carolina State University

Ian Anson (PI)
Assistant Professor of Political Science
University of Maryland Baltimore County

Susanne Hall (PI)
Teaching Professor of Writing and Director of the Hixon Writing Center
California Institute of Technology

David Hansen
Director of Copyright and Scholarly Communications
Duke University Libraries

Michael Pemberton (PI)
Professor of Writing and Linguistics and Director of the University Writing Center
Georgia Southern University

Mitch Yelverton
Senior Research Agreements Manager, Office of Research Contracts
Duke University School of Medicine


Current funding: National Science Foundation: Cultivating Cultures for Ethical STEM program (SES-1737093); Duke University (primary grantee) 

Funding for this research has also been provided by the Josiah Charles Trent Memorial Foundation Endowment Fund and a Duke University Arts and Sciences Faculty Research Grant.

Start and End Date

2016 - ongoing

Contact Information

Cary Moskovitz
Thompson Writing Program
Duke University

Publications, Presentations, and Other Products 


For full text links to TRRP publications, see the Text Recycling website.

Cary Moskovitz, Susanne Hall & Michael A. Pemberton. Common Misconceptions about Text Recycling in Scientific Writing, BioScience (forthcoming, 2022).

Cary Moskovitz, Susanne Hall & Michael A. Pemberton. A model text recycling policy for publishers. Published jointly April, 2022 in European Science Editing (48: e81677) and Science Editor (2022;45:42-45).

Cary Moskovitz. Text Recycling in Chemistry Research: The Need for Clear and Consistent Guidelines. In International Ethics in Chemistry: Developing Common Values across Cultures. Editors: Schelble SM, Elkins K. American Chemical Society, Nov 2021.

Cary Moskovitz & Aaron Colton. iThenticate, self-plagiarism, and fraud: a complicated relationship. Inside Higher Ed, March 5, 2021

Cary Moskovitz. Standardizing terminology for text recycling in research writing. Learned Publishing, 2021. 
Ian Anson and Cary Moskovitz. Text recycling in STEM: A text-analytic study of recent NSF-sponsored research reports. Accountability in Research, November, 2020.

Cary Moskovitz. There is no absolute expectation about text recycling, Clinical Biochemistry, 86, p.65-66, December 2020.

Cary Moskovitz & Susanne Hall. Text Recycling in STEM Research: An Exploratory Investigation of Expert and Novice Beliefs and Attitudes. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, March 2020.

Chris Anson, Susanne Hall, Michael A. Pemberton & Cary Moskovitz. Reuse in STEM Research Writing: Rhetorical and Practical Considerations and Challenges. AILA Review, Vol. 33, 2020.

Ian Anson, Cary Moskovitz & Chris Anson. A Text-Analytic Method for Identifying Text Recycling in STEM Research Reports. Writing Analytics, Vol. 3, 2019.

Michael A. Pemberton, Susanne Hall, Cary Moskovitz & Chris Anson. Text Recycling: Views of North American Journal Editors from an Interview-Based Study. Learned Publishing, 2019.

Cary Moskovitz. Text Recycling in Scientific Writing. Science and Engineering Ethics. March, 2018.
Susanne Hall, Cary Moskovitz & Michael A. Pemberton. Attitudes toward text recycling in academic writing across disciplines. Accountability in Research, 25(3), 2018.

Cary Moskovitz. Text Recycling in Health Sciences Research Literature: A Rhetorical Perspective. Research Integrity and Peer Review, 2(1), February 2017.

Cary Moskovitz. Self-Plagiarism, Text Recycling and Science Education. BioScience, 66(1), January 2016.


See https://textrecycling.org/presentations/


TRRP Best Practices for Researchers

Understanding Text Recycling:  A Guide for Researchers

Flyer: 5 Common Misconceptions about Text Recycling 

. . Text Recycling Research Project. Online Ethics Center. DOI:. https://onlineethics.org/cases/stem-ethics-projects-2017-present/text-recycling-research-project.